Electron Beam Welding (E.B.W.)
Electron Beam Welding is a fusion welding process in which a high-speed electron beam is applied to the joint to be welded. The kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into heat upon impact, producing the fusion of the materials.
Welding is performed in high vacuum condition to avoid the dispersion of the electron beam. The heat input is very localized and therefore the rest of the assembly remains cold and dimensionally stable.
The weldment is very tight with a minimal heat affected zone. There is no need to use filler metal.
- High energy density of the electron beam in the impact area (from 100 to 1000 times higher than other arc welding processes).
- Low heat input from the weld resulting in a lower shrinkage and distortion, narrower heat affected zones, and limited thermal effects on the adjacent base materials.
- Possibility to use the parts in the as-welded condition without the need for subsequent processing (e.g. stress relieving heat treatments).
- High depth to width ration of the weld which allows to perform welds in a single pass compared to other arc welding processes that require multiple passes (depth of penetration up to 60mm in a single pass).
- Absence of oxygen and hydrogen in the weldment because welding is performed in high vacuum condition (p <10-4 mbar).
- Possibility to weld materials with high thermal conductivity (e.g. copper, aluminum), refractory materials and combinations of different materials that cannot be welded with other fusion welding processes.
- Possibility to weld reflective materials such as copper and aluminum that cannot be welded with the laser welding process.
- Possibility to adjust the welding characteristics and to minimize the weld defects thanks to the high versatility of the electron beam control system.
- Components of engines
- Parts of aircraft structures
- Transmission parts
Energy (Gas turbines)
- Combustion chambers
- Transmission shafts
- Light alloy car wheels
- Alloy steels and high alloy steels
- Stainless steels (austenitic and martensitic)
- Precipitation Hardening steels (PH)
- Nickel and Cobalt based superalloys
- Aluminum and aluminum alloys
- Titanium and titanium alloys
- Magnesium and magnesium alloys