Electron Beam Welding (E.B.W.)

Electron Beam Welding is a fusion welding process in which a high-speed electron beam is applied to the edges to be joined. The kinetic energy of the electrons is transformed into heat upon impact, resulting in the fusion of materials. Welding is performed under vacuum conditions to avoid dispersion of the electron beam. The heating is very localized and the rest of the assembly therefore remains cold and stable. The weld is very tight with a minimal heat affected zone. There is no need to use filler metal.

Advantages

  • High energy density of the electron beam in the impact area (from 100 to 1000 times higher than that of arc welding processes).
  • Low heat input from the weld resulting in less shrinkage and distortion, thinner thermally altered areas and limited thermal effects on the adjacent base material.
  • Possibility of using the pieces in the welded state without the need for subsequent processing (e.g. stress relieving heat treatments).
  • High welding aspect ratios (depth / width) that allow you to perform welds in a single pass compared to arc welds that require multiple passes (depth of penetration up to 60mm in a single pass).
  • Extremely low or no oxygen and hydrogen content in welding as welding is performed in high vacuum (p <10-4 mbar).
  • Possibility of welding materials with high thermal conductivity (e.g. copper, aluminum), refractory metals and combinations of different materials that cannot be welded with other fusion welding processes.
  • Possibility of welding reflective materials such as copper and aluminum that cannot be welded with the laser welding process.
  • Possibility of optimizing the welding characteristics and minimizing defects thanks to the high versatility of the electron beam control system.

Applications

Aerospace
  • Jet engine components
  • Parts of structures
  • Transmission parts
Energy (Gas turbines)
  • Combustion chambers
  • Nozzles
  • Injectors
  • Burners
Automotive
  • Gears
  • Transmission parts
  • Light alloy rims
Materials
  • Alloy steels (tempered, case hardened)
  • Stainless steels (austenitic and martensitic)
  • Precipitation steels (PH)
  • Nickel / Cobalt based super alloys
  • Aluminum and its aluminum alloys
  • Titanium and titanium alloys
  • Magnesium and magnesium alloys
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